As OEMs shift their focus to the driver experience, software applications have become key differentiators and epitomize the car’s evolution to a smartphone on wheels.
For 50 years, ECUs have been used to perfect the performance of the vehicle’s powertrain, steering, windows, and more. Many cars today have up to 150 ECUs and their software comprise up to 35% of a vehicle’s value.
Today OEMs are creating new technological conveniences and special safety features that enhance the driver and passenger experience. These advanced features, supported by ECUs and software, include:
OEMs and Tier 1s have decades of expertise in mechanical engineering and designing and building legacy computing, but they are struggling to overcome the technological challenges, such as integrating the hardware and software for delivering the advanced features and functionality that will define the next generation of in-vehicle experience.
The Cybertech Tier offers the automotive supply chain the expertise for consolidating hardware and software components into integrated products and virtualizing computing systems. Their solutions use advanced communication and high-speed Ethernet backbones to deliver flexible, cost-effective, and secure solutions that pave the way for the personalized in-vehicle experience demanded by drivers.Download The Whitepaper
The year Steve Jobs envisioned the app store
for your car
Of Tesla Model 3s configured online in 2018
A hallmark of consumer behavior in the 2010s was the addiction to constant connectivity and the immediate gratification it offered. Whether it was access to information, binging a TV series or purchasing just about anything online with next day delivery, this behavior has become even more pronounced in 2020.
As connectivity has moved from the desktop to handheld devices, people have become accustomed to personalizing their experience. The launch of app-stores for car functionality heralds the “iphonization” or “smartphonization” of vehicles. In these “software-defined vehicles”, car dashboards will function like smartphones or smart TVs, letting users download software apps from OEMs and the automotive aftermarket to create a consistent, seamless experiences wherever they are—at the home office, out and about, or in the car—and with access to email, AI assistants, streaming music and more.
As the importance of electronics and software has grown over the last decade, so has its complexity. Vehicle software has increased by a phenomenal 1500%, from 10 million lines of code to 150 million lines of code—about 1,000 times more code than the Apollo mission spacecraft to the moon.
The vast amounts of code, created by numerous vendors, often have software-related quality issues or conflicts with other ECUs that cause millions of vehicles to be recalled each year. In 2018, software-related recalls cost the car industry more than $17 billion.
The design of today’s ECUs cannot be scaled to enable software to be quickly fixed or updated to reduce the cost of software recalls. In the coming years, the process of updating and integrating computer code in vehicles will become completely unmanageable. Autonomous or partially autonomous cars (Levels 4 and 5) will require an additional 200 million lines of code to handle vehicle-to-vehicle communication, vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, and new customizations or usability-related features.
With the automotive paradigm shift to a drivercentric vehicle, we now have more software code in a vehicle than in a fighter jet or space shuttle. The current architecture cannot be sustained due to the complexity, cost, and security risks associated with so many ECUs, miles of wiring, and associated pieces of software. Today’s ECUs offer the computing equivalent of 20 personal computers and transmit more than 25 gigabytes of data per hour but they are severely limited by the CAN’s data transfer rate of 1 Mbps—a far cry from the 1 Gbps we have on our home and office Ethernet networks.
GuardKnox’s next-generation Zonal Architecture revolutionizes the vehicle’s electrical and electronics (E/E) architecture by decoupling network functionality from the vehicle’s physical hardware. In this new approach, resources are viewed as a pool or cloud that are ready to be distributed and assigned tasks—like today’s smartphone ecosystems.
The automotive industry isn’t the first industry to be faced with extreme growth that outpaces the available computing resources. In the late 1990s, IT resources were stretched to their limits due to the rapid growth of the Internet for many business applications and processes.
To solve the challenge, a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach was used in which applications were broken down into specific functional components or “services” that could be remotely accessed on computers or the web and updated independently. The services were independent of the vendors that implemented them and of the clients that used them. Standardized functionality or services were offered by distributed networked computers (servers) and accessed through standardized protocols and Application Program Interfaces (APIs).
GuardKnox has pioneered a patented approach that uses SOA to enable Domain Controllers, or Gateways to serve as a consolidated computing platform.
This enables OEMs and Tier 1s to maximize the functionality, security, and safety of connected and autonomous vehicles while lowering the complexity of developing software and services to customize their software-defined vehicles. The GuardKnox Automotive SOA Stack provides a real-time safe and secure environment for the operation of multiple services within a client-server framework.
It also includes a special partition that implements the functionality of the GuardKnox Communication Lockdown™ mechanism that acts as a safeguard securing the entire vehicular computer network.
This method offers four primary benefits:
Code components are created and reused to decrease development time
A new standardized communication protocol enables the platforms to communicate and pass data regardless of the languages used to build them
A standard communication protocol limits the interaction between the clients and the backend services and enables web-based services to be scaled without overly taxing the application
Maintenance costs are reduced as fixes or changes to code can be performed in specific services without impact or requiring the test of end-to-end application performance.
The GuardKnox Product Family offers several options for implementing Automotive Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). SOA creates the in-vehicle environment to securely host applications and services on a single chip with access control and service level partitioning for an upgraded and customized driving experience.
Our product line and solution offerings can be seamlessly integrated into next-generation vehicles, and include Domain Controller Platform, a Zonal Gateway on a Chip, a Vehicle Server, an Aftermarket Add-On, Automotive SOA Stack and Built-to-Spec development. Additionally, the patented GuardKnox SOA Stack can be integrated into existing components or architectures to provide both software and hardware (if supported) safety and security isolation for mixed-criticality systems. As a complete stack, it is provided to OEMs and Tier 1 manufacturers for seamless interoperability with other vehicle services and applications while simultaneously reducing development costs.
Flexible hardware architecture for future unforeseen needs and data requirements
Hosting services and downloadable applications for customization
Supporting an app-store for downloadable personalized apps and features
Including firewalls, remote server management, cryptography or the Communication Lockdown™ framework
Ability to host and communicate with all operating systems, whether mission critical or not and containing the failure of a single app/service so that others are unaffected
Components, applications and resources into integrated products
A unique feature of the GuardKnox Automotive SOA Stack is its patented Communication Lockdown™ approach for providing holistic vehicle cybersecurity. Using the vehicle’s communications matrix and OEM’s specifications of the vehicle, GuardKnox builds a state machine that is used to inspect activity on three layers to ensure that if the external vehicle network is compromised by a message from the vehicle’s external connectivity, the internal vehicle network remains fully protected from the propagation of malicious activity.
Service-Oriented Architecture uses a central repository of software services that can be accessed by a variety of subsystems. Because of this, it:
By implementing these functions as SOA services rather than separate applications, GuardKnox enables Tier 1 suppliers to develop their products and services more efficiently and rapidly. In addition, OEMs need to perform a single testing and integration process that is considerably less expensive.
Automotive SOA (service-oriented architecture) creates a high-performance, multi-role mixed criticality environment to securely host applications and services on a single chip with access control and service level partitioning for an upgraded and fully customized driving experience for the driver of tomorrow. GuardKnox’s Automotive SOA Stack enables a variety of operating systems with different capabilities to co-exist without endangering each other should any application be compromise
Current vehicles use over 100 individual ECUs, miles of wiring, and millions of lines of code. It has come to a point where this architecture, namely the CAN Bus, can no longer be scaled. This is due to the relatively limited throughput capability of 5 Mbps that CAN Bus provdes. As a result, the industry is at the point where adding functionality that drivers demand has led to the need for an Automotive SOA approach.